Prohibited Transactions with a Retirement Plan

Non-Traditional Assets in your Company Sponsored Retirement Plan 

& Prohibited Transactions


We have provided additional information re: the Prohibited Transaction regulations that apply to company sponsored retirement plans, including 401(k) Plans.  


What is a Prohibited Transaction


Certain transactions are prohibited under the law to prevent dealings with parties who may be in a position to exercise improper influence over the plan. In addition, fiduciaries are prohibited from engaging in self-dealing and must avoid conflicts of interest that could harm the plan.


Prohibited Transactions


Who is prohibited from doing business with the plan? Prohibited parties (called parties in interest) include the employer, the union, plan fiduciaries, service providers, and statutorily defined owners, officers, and relatives of parties in interest.

Some of the prohibited transactions are:


  • A sale, exchange, or lease between the plan and party in interest; 
  • Lending money or other extension of credit between the plan and party in interest; and 
  • Furnishing goods, services, or facilities between the plan and party in interest. 

Other prohibitions relate solely to fiduciaries who use the plan’s assets in their own interest or who act on both sides of a transaction involving a plan. Fiduciaries cannot receive money or any other consideration for their personal account from any party doing business with the plan related to that business.




There are a number of exceptions (exemptions) in the law that provide protections for the plan in conducting necessary transactions that would otherwise be prohibited. The Labor Department may grant additional exemptions.

Exemptions are provided in the law for many dealings with banks, insurance companies, and other financial institutions that are essential to the ongoing operations of the plan. One exemption in the law allows the plan to hire a service provider as long as the services are necessary to operate the plan and the contract or arrangement under which the services are provided and the compensation paid for those services is reasonable.


One exemption allows the provision of investment advice to participants who direct the investments in their accounts. This applies to the buying, selling, or holding of an investment related to the advice as well as to the receipt of related fees and other compensation by a fiduciary adviser. 


Another important exemption in the law – and a popular feature of most plans – permits plans to offer loans to participants. The loans, which are considered investments of the plan, must be available to all participants on a reasonably equivalent basis, must be made according to the provisions in the plan, and must charge a reasonable rate of interest and be adequately secured.


The exemptions issued by the Department can involve transactions available to a class of plans or to one specific plan. Both class and individual exemptions are available at (click on Compliance Assistance). For more information on applying for an exemption, see the procedures on the exemption Web pages.


Additional Considerations For Plans Investing In Employer Stock


Plans that invest in employer stock need to consider specific rules relating to this investment. Traditional defined benefit pension plans have limits on the amount of stock and debt obligations that a plan can hold and the amount of the plan’s assets that can be invested in employer securities. For 401(k) plans, profit sharing plans, and employee stock ownership plans, there is no limit on how much in employer securities the plans can hold if the plan documents so provide.

If an employer decides to make employer stock an investment option under the plan, proper monitoring will include ensuring that those responsible for making investment decisions, whether an investment manager or participants, have critical information about the company’s financial condition so that they can make informed decisions about the stock. Participants in individual account plans must be provided an opportunity to divest their investment in publicly traded employer securities and reinvest those amounts in other diversified investment options under the plan. For employee contributions invested in employer securities, participants have the right to divest immediately. Where employer contributions are invested in employer securities, participants can divest if they have 3 years of service. This does not apply to stand-alone employee stock ownership plans where there are no employee or employer matching contributions.


A plan can buy or sell employer securities from a party in interest, such as an employer, an employee, or other related entity as described above (which would otherwise be prohibited) if it is for fair market value and no sales commission is charged. If the plan is a defined benefit plan (a traditional pension plan), the plan generally is not permitted to hold more than 10 percent of its assets in employer stock.


Additional Information




Additional Information:


Leading Retirement Solutions

(206) 430-5084 phone
  (800) 974-2814 (toll free)


Our mission: to proactively support organizations and lead them toward a secure future.